By Paz Estrella Tolentino;

This paintings offers case-studies of the emergence and evolution of firm businesses (MNCs) established in 11 constructed and constructing international locations of greatly divergent styles of nationwide improvement. From this research, Tolentino develops a accomplished idea of the emergence and evolution of MNCs from a macroeconomic standpoint.

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Extra resources for Multinational Corporations: Emergence and Evolution

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The rapid evolution of outward FDI is associated with industrial upgrading and the generation of strong production and export position in the home country. 2 Potential development paths for outward direct investment, and their association with local industrialization across different types of country Categorization of Link between domestic Type of locally national development and the growth based MNC development of outward FDI Resource-abundant Related diversification (for countries example from mining), downstream processing (for example, metal processing, wood products, petrochemicals, agribusiness), with some other upgrading of industry in large countries Resource-scarce Industrial upgrading and export Resource-based firms Manufacturing firms Manufacturing Multinational corporations 16 large countries growth (as wages rise following firms productivity growth), growth in Services firms t f simpler i Resource-scarce iShift away from Manufacturing small countries manufacturing activity to some firms, relocating industrial upgrading, but more activity towards a greater service International orientation service companies Source: Author’s adaptation based on Cantwell (1997).

This is because resource-scarce countries with large domestic markets tended to pursue resource intensive domestic and international production, while resourcescarce countries with smaller domestic markets pursued non-resource intensive domestic and international production. Part II Multinational corporations from the resource-abundant countries 2 The emergence of multinational corporations from the United States The period until 1914 Introduction The United States accounted for no more than 18 per cent of the global stock of outward FDI in 1914—a share much lower than that of the largest home country, the United Kingdom, with more than 45 per cent (Dunning, 1983).

The general factors behind the emergence and growth of American FDI in mining, manufacturing, petroleum and agricultural industries between 1893 and 1914 is then considered, followed by a more detailed examination of American FDI in each of those major industries. Finally, some main conclusions are drawn about the changing industrial and geographical patterns of American FDI in the period until 1914. The evolution of the early American traders to American foreign direct investors The installation of American mercantile houses overseas as well as the foreign branches of American merchants, and the transformation of traders into investors in other foreign businesses constituted the initial phase in the history of American business abroad (Wilkins, 1970).

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