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Extra info for Nature (Vol. 434, No. 7037, 28 April 2005)

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Total sleep deprivation can be fatal3,4, and even partial deprivation of sleep has serious consequences on cognition, mood and health1,5. Sleep is tightly regulated in a homeostatic manner6: the longer one stays awake, the stronger the pressure to sleep, suggesting that sleep serves an essential function. In most animals, the timing of sleep is gated by the circadian system, which ensures that sleep occurs at the appropriate time of day7. The circadian system is a prime example of how a complex behaviour can be dissected successfully by genetic means8,9.

M. 05, paired t-test). , n ¼ 32 flies per line). The escape response after sleep deprivation worsens (latency increases) in wild-type flies but not in mns flies. 05, paired t-test). com/nature © 2005 Nature Publishing Group 1089 articles a highly hydrophobic one occurs at the extracellular end of S1 (Fig. 3c). The mutated threonine residue is extremely well conserved from Aplysia to human (Fig. 3c), suggesting that it has some important role. Moreover, it appears to be in close proximity to the voltage-sensing S4 domain as well as to the pore domain40, and certain amino acid substitutions in the S1–S2 loop are known to produce changes in its voltage dependency41.

It then coerces the cells into making new viral particles, which are released only from the exposed cell surface (the apical surface). Virus production begins with the IMAGE UNAVAILABLE FOR COPYRIGHT REASONS replication of the viral genome in the nucleus, giving numerous RNA molecules. These are then packaged with the viral nucleoprotein (NP) and exported from the nucleus. Using infected cells in culture, together with staining techniques, Elton et al. found that when export was inhibited, NP accumulated at the nuclear periphery in an apical distribution.

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